Tôjô Hideki - HISTORY
Hideki Tojo was born in Tokyo, Japan, on 30 December He joined the Japanese Army and his military service included periods in Switzerland and. Tōjō Hideki: Tojo Hideki, soldier and statesman who was prime dates. December 23 · December Tōjō Hideki, (born December 30, Portrait of Hideki Tojo, circa · Inaugural Party for the newly appointed War Minister Seoshiro Itagaki, ; note Naval Minister · Hideki Tojo, date unknown .
He was sentenced to death on 12 November and executed by hanging on 23 December The Tribunal had jurisdiction over allegations of crimes against peace, war crimes and crimes against humanity. The Tokyo Tribunal received the same criticisms moved to its German counterpart, concerning in particular the modality of its creation, the composition of the judiciary and the respect for the principle of legality.
The public prosecution was lead by the American Joseph B. The proceedings at the Tribunal took place between 29 April and 12 November In total, 28 former Japanese generals and politicians were indicted. Remarkably, no proceedings were instituted against the then Emperor of Japan, Hirohito.
The Chinese forces fought hard to prevent the Japanese from taking Shanghai, defending it for four months, from August to November, before the Japanese were able to take the city. The worst example of Japan's brutality is the reported destruction of China's capital city of Nanking. Irish Chang, author of The Rape of Nanking, reports that here, in DecemberJapanese soldiers murdered nearlyChinese prisoners of war and raped, tortured, and killed hundreds of thousands of Chinese civilians.
He took an aggressive stance, claiming that Japan would have to go to war against both China and the Soviet Union to reach its goals and that Japan's weak economy could only be improved if the military became stronger.
Hideki Tojo - Wikipedia
Tojo left this position in December to become inspector general of army aviation. By Julywhen Tojo was appointed minister of war, Japan was still fighting China and had also invaded Korea.
The United States government protested these actions strongly and even stopped selling U. Some moderate leaders wanted to withdraw troops from China and negotiate with the United States, but Tojo opposed them.
He drew up new plans for more aggression, and he approved the Tripartite Pact—an agreement that made Japan an ally of Germany and Italy—because he felt it would put Japan in a stronger position. A prime minister with a "clean slate" When Konoye resigned in OctoberTojo took over the job of prime minister, while remaining head of the departments of war, education, commerce, and industry.
- Tōjō Hideki
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- Tojo is born
Tojo insisted that he begin his new job with a "clean slate," meaning that he did not have to honor any earlier promises to negotiate with the United States. Although the military was now in control of the country and Tojo was its top leader, he was not a dictator, because he still had to answer to a "Supreme Command" made up of civilian and military leaders.
He was also supposed to be under the emperor's command, but in fact Emperor Hirohito ; see entry did not have much real power.
On December 7, —even as some Japanese diplomats were in Washington, D. Thousands of people were killed and many ships and airplanes were destroyed.
The next day, President Franklin D. Roosevelt ; see entry declared war on Japan. Meanwhile, Tojo broadcast a radio message to the Japanese people, warning them that "to annihilate this enemy and to establish a stable new order in east Asia, the nation must necessarily anticipate a long war. Although the Japanese forces achieved some success at the beginning including invasions of the Philippines and Singaporetheir fortunes began to decline as the war continued and they lost several important battles.
Nevertheless, Tojo rejected the idea of a negotiated peace treaty. He thought Japan should continue to fight. But in JulyU. When I told him that to initiate war is a mistake, he agreed. But the next day, he would tell me: And the next time I met him, he leaned even more toward war. In short, I felt the Emperor was telling me: Hirohito rejected this option, arguing that a member of the imperial family should not have to eventually carry the responsibility for a war against the West as a defeat would ruin the prestige of the House of Yamato.
But we have clumsily telegraphed out intentions. We needn't have signaled what we're going to do; having [the entire Konoe cabinet] resign was too much.Emperor Hirohito - Hideki Tojo
As matters stand now we can merely keep silent and without the least effort war will begin. According to Colonel Akiho Ishii, a member of the Army General Staff, the Prime Minister showed a true sense of loyalty to the emperor performing this duty.
For example, when Ishii received from Hirohito a communication saying the Army should drop the idea of stationing troops in China to counter the military operations of the Western powers, he wrote a reply for the Prime Minister for his audience with the Emperor.
Tojo then replied to Ishii: One cannot recite arguments to the Emperor. You may keep your finely phrased memorandum. The Emperor then gave his consent to war. In addition, the Japanese fleet which attacked Pearl Harbor was under orders from Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto to be prepared to return to Japan on a moment's notice, should negotiations succeed. As Education Minister, he continued militaristic and nationalist indoctrination in the national education system, and reaffirmed totalitarian policies in government.
As Home Minister, he ordered various eugenics measures including the sterilization of the "mentally unfit". Tojo had popular support in the early years of the war as Japanese forces moved from one victory to another. In MarchTojo in his capacity as Army Minister gave permission for the Japanese Army in Taiwan to ship 50 " comfort women " from Taiwan to Borneo without ID papers his approval was necessary as the Army's rules forbade people without ID traveling to the new conquests.